MAJOR MUSIC III: Chapter 16 Compositions
Gretchen am Spinnrade
String Quartet in A Minor, II
Clara Schumann: Der Mond kommt still gegangen
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel: Nachtwanderer (“Night Wanderer”) op. 7, No. 1
Josephine Lang: Frühzeitiger Frühling op. 1, No. 2 (“The first sign of spring”)
Dichterliebe - “Im wunderschonen Monat Mai”
Dichterliebe - “Die alten, bosen Lieder”
Carnaval - “Eusebius”
Carnaval - "Florestan"
Polonaise in A, Op. 40, No. 1
Nocturne in F-sharp, Op. 15, No. 2
Franz Liszt: Sonetto 104 del Petrarca
Gioacchino Rossini: Overture to William Tell
Fantastic - Symphony, V
Louise Dumont Farrenc
Scherzo from the Trio in E Minor
Fourth movement of Nonetto op. 38: Adagio-Allegro
The Classical Era: Chapters 12 & 13 - The Symphony & Other Classical Forms
Symphony No. 40 in G minor: 1st mvt. (Mozart)
Symphony No. 88 in G, I (Haydn)
Symphony No. 88 in G, II (Haydn)
Symphony No. 88 in G, III (Haydn)
Symphony No. 88 in G, IV (Haydn)
Piano Sonata in B flat: 3rd mvt. (Mozart)
Sonata in A, K. 331 “Alla turca” (Mozart)
Concerto for Violincello in B flat, G. 482 (Boccherini)
4 Little Duets for Harpsichord (C.P.E. Bach)
Flute Quartet in D, K. 285, 3rd mvt. (Mozart)
Don Giovanni excerpt: "Ho capito" (Mozart)
Requiem in D minor, K. 626 (Mozart)
Beethoven Supplementary Listening Guide
An die ferne Geliebte
Ludwig von Beethoven composed An die ferne Gelieble, ("To the distant Beloved") in April 1816, using the poetry of Aloys Jeitteles, a medical student in Vienna. Jeitteles had poetry published in several literary journals, but his main vocation was that of a medical doctor. The cycle was dedicated to Beethoven's patron and friend, Prince Josef von Lobkowitz. An die ferne Geliebte is the first song cycle ever composed, and is one of the few “pure: cycles. H. E. Krehbiel noted, “There is both a spiritual and a material bond which knits the six poems into a whole, as the various parts of a Beethoven symphony are molded into oneness.” Throughout, Beethoven takes care to symbolize the poetic imagery in both voice and piano. The voice and piano engage in a more symbiotic relationship than is normally found in vocal music of this time. In some circumstances, the piano subjugates the voice. From a historical and analytical standpoint, it is a very significant work.
Ludwig von Beethoven is infrequently mentioned as one of the great creators of lieder. This circumstance needs some revising. Beethoven wrote approximately seventy songs, a significant number of which are still in the active vocal repertoire. Before Beethoven, the concept of the song was very different from the mature art song form that blossomed in the Romantic Period. Classical composers, such as Mozart and Haydn, created songs that were pleasant to the ear and enjoyable to sing, but did not make a serious effort to move the performer and/or listener (exceptions include arias from some of Mozart's operas). Usually a tune was created as a pleasing aural experience, and text was selected based on how easy it was to match it up with the elemental aspects of the melody. Beethoven created a different song. Through his own genius and through the influence of circumstances in the worlds of literature and visual art, he transformed the Classical style into a style that contained many of the elements of the Romantic Period. Music historian Donald Grout declared, “But he himself is neither Classic nor Romantic; he is Beethoven, and his figure towers like a colossus astride the two centuries.” Beethoven wrote music for the prose. Phrases evoke both visual images and emotional responses. The Romantic concept of lieder was created by Beethoven. Other composers may have elevated the quality of lieder, but they all owe a debt to Beethoven.
An die ferne Geliebte To the Distant Beloved
In das blaue Nebelland,
Nach den fernen Triften sehend,
Wo ich dich, Geliebte, fand.
Weit bin ich von dir geschieden,
Trennend liegen Berg und Tal
Zwischen uns und unserm Frieden,
Unserm Glück und unsrer Qual.
Ach, den Blick kannst du nicht sehen,
Der zu dir so glühend eilt,
Und die Seufzer, sie verwehen
In dem Raume, der uns teilt.
Will denn nichts mehr zu dir dringen,
Nichts der Liebe Bote sein?
Singen will ich, Lieder singen,
Die dir klagen meine Pein!
Denn vor Liedesklang entweichet
Jeder Raum und jede Zeit
Und ein liebcnd Herz erreichet,
Was ein liebend Herz geweiht!
On the hill I sit, gazing
into the blue haze,
towards the far meadows
where, beloved, I found you.
Far am I parted from you,
mountain and valley intervene
between us and our peace,
our happiness and pain.
Ah, you cannot see the look
that hastens so warm your way,
and sighs - they are lost
in the separating space.
Will then nothing reach you anymore,
be messenger of love?
I shall sing, sing songs,
to pour out my pain to you!
For at sound of song,
time and space recede,
and a loving heart is reached
by what a loving heart has blessed.
Aus dem nebligen Grau
Wo die Sonne verglüht,
Wo die Wolke umzieht,
Möchte ich sein!
Dort im ruhigen Tal
Schweigen Schmerzen und Qual.
Wo im Gestein
Still die Primel dort sinnt,
Weht so leise der Wind,
Möchte ich sein!
Hin zum sinnigcn Wald
Drängt mich Liebesgewalt,
Ach, mich zög's nicht von hier,
Könnt ich, Traute, bei dir
Where the mountains so blue,
from the misty grey,
where the sun’s glow fades,
where the sky clouds over,
there would I be!
There, in the peaceful valley,
pain and torment cease.
Where, in the rock,
the pensive primrose is,
and the wind blows so soft,
there would I be!
Away to the thoughful wood
am I driven by force of love,
by inner pain.
Ah, I would not be drawn from here,
could I, beloved, but be with you
Und du Bächlein klein und schmal,
Könnt mein Liebchen ihr erspähen,
Grüßt sie mir viel tausendmal.
Seht, ihr Wolken, sie dann gehen
Sinnend in dem stillen Tal,
Laßt mein Bild vor ihr entstehen
In dem luftgen Himmelssaal.
Wird sie an den Büschen stehen
Die nun herbstlich falb und kahl,
Klagt ihr, wie mir ist geschehen,
Klagt ihr, Vöglein , meine Qual.
Stille Weste, bringt im Wehen
Hin zu meiner Herzenswahl
Meine Seufzer, die vergehen
Wie der Sonne letzter Strahl.
Flilstr' ihr mein Liebesfiehen,
Laß sie, Bachlein, klein und schmal,
Treu in deinen Wogen sehen
Meine Trünen ohne Zahl!
Light sailing clouds on high,
and you, small brook,
if you can spy my love –
a thousand greetings to her.
If, clouds, you then see her walk,
thoughtful in the quiet valley,
make me appear to her
in heaven's airy hall.
If she be standing by bushes,
autumn yellow now and bare,
pour out to her my fate,
pour out, birds, my torment.
Quiet westwinds, carry
to my true-love
my sighs which fade
as the sun's last ray.
Whisper to her my entreaties,
let her, small brooklet,
truly see in your ripples,
my never-ending tears!
Dieser Vöglein muntrer Zug
Werden dich, o Huldin, sehen.
Nehmt mich mit im leichten Flug!
Diese Weste werden spielen
Scherzend dir um Wag und Brust,
In den seidnen Locken wühien.
Teilt ich mit euch these Lust!
Hin zu dir von jenen Hügeln
Emsig dieses Bachlein eilt.
Wird ihr Bild sich in dir spiegein,
Fließ zurück dann unverweilt!
These clouds on high,
this cheerful flight of birds
will see you, 0 fairest.
Take me lightly winging too.
These westwinds playfully
will waft on cheek and breast,
will ruffle your silken tresses.
Would I might share that joy!
To you from those hills
this busy brook hurries.
Should she be mirrored in you,
flow forthwith back to me.
Die Lüfte, sie wehen so milde, so lau.
Geschwätzig die Büche nun rinnen.
Die Schwalbe, die kehret zum wirtlichcn Dach,
Sie baut sich so emsig ihr bräutlich Gemach,
Die Liebe soil wohnen da drinnen.
Sie bringt sich geschäftig von kreuz und von quer
Manch weichercs Stück zu dem Brautbett hieher,
Manch wärmendes Stück für die Kleinen.
Nun wohnen die Gatten beisammen so treu,
Was Winter geschieden, verband nun der Mai,
Was liebet, das weiß er zu einen.
Es kehret der Maien, es blühet die Au.
Die Lüfte, sie wehen so milde, so lau.
Nur ich kann nicht ziehen von hinnen.
Wenn alles, was liebet, der Frühling vereint,
Nur unserer Liebe kein Frühüng erscheint,
Und Tränen sind all ihr Gewinnen.
May returns, the meadow blooms.
The breezes blow so gentle, so mild.
The brooks run chattering.
The swallow returns to the hospitable roof,
builds eagerly her bridal chamber,
wherein love shall dwell.
From here, from there busily she brings
many soft bits for the bridal bed,
many warm bits for the little ones.
Now the pair live together so true.
What winter has parted, May has joined.
All who love he can unite.
May returns, the meadow blooms,
the breezes blow so gentle, so mild.
I alone cannot journey from here.
When spring is uniting all who love,
for our love alone does no spring appear,
and tears are its only gain.
Die ich dir, Geliebte, sang,
Singe sie dann abends wieder
Zu der Laute süßem Klang.
Wenn das Dämmrungsrot dann ziehet
Nach dem stillen blauhen See,
Und sein letzer Strahl verglühet
Hinter jener Bergeshöh;
Und du singst, was ich gesungen,
Was mir aus der vollen Brust
Ohne Kunstgepräng erklungen,
Nur der Sehnsucht sich bewußt:
Dann vor diesen Lieder weichet,
Was geschieden uns so weit,
Und ein liebend Herz erreichet
Was ein liebend Herz geweiht.
Accept, then, these songs
I sang for you, beloved;
sing them again at evening
to the lute's sweet sound.
As evening red draws
toward the calm blue lake,
and its last ray fades
behind that mountain height;
and you sing what I sang
from a full heart
without art or show,
aware only of longing;
then, at these songs, shall
what parts us so far, recede,
and a loving heart be reached
by what a loving heart has blessed.
The “Moonlight” Sonata (titled “Sonata quasi una fantasia” by the composer) marks the beginning of a period when Beethoven produced increasingly experimental works, emancipating himself from the expected sonata-form first movement and substituting freer forms. The first movement is improvisatory in character and prefigures such works as the impromptus of Schubert. This short, lyrical and unusually slow movement is founded on a quiet, somber melody of rather narrow range, supported by a persistent arpeggiated triplet figure that barely changes from beginning to end. It leads without pause into the Allegretto, with a tonal shift that produces a short-lived but much brighter mood. The finale is a true sonata-form movement, and thus the structural weight of the work is transposed from the beginning to the end.
Beethoven’s second period began with a number of dramatic, heroic works, including the Third (“Eroica”) and Fifth Symphonies, the opera Fidelio and the “Waldstein” and “Appassionata” Sonatas. From the opening, the “Appassionata” assumes a sinister mood, a menacing “fate” motif presaging the passion soon to be unleashed. Alan Rich calls the work one of “total tragedy ... even the warm-hearted contrasting theme in the first movement, which begins as a rebuke to the bleakness of the opening, itself breaks off before reaching completion, seemingly to capitulate to Beethoven’s singleness of purpose.” The beautiful slow movement, a set of variations, has a religious solemnity that provides a respite from the energy that surrounds it. The finale opens with the startling repetition of a diminished seventh chord and builds into a whirlwind of fury.
- from the liner notes, Beethoven Sonatas – Van Cliburn, BMG Music 1990
Beethoven began work on the Missa Solemnis in 1819, planning it for the grand ceremony in Cologne Cathedral at which Archduke Rudolph of Austria, his main pupil and patron, was to be installed as cardinal and archbishop. The previous half dozen years had not been easy ones for the composer. His personal life was in more or less constant turmoil, and he was evincing evident uncertainty about the direction his art was to take. Indeed, he had written very little music at all, until achieving a kind of breakthrough with the long and radical “Hammerklavier” Sonata op. 106, of 1818.
The period of Beethoven's writing block had now ended - in the nine years that were left to him he composed three more piano sonatas, the Ninth Symphony, five string quartets, and more - but it is perhaps not surprising that the Mass took him an inordinate time to finish (till 1823, by which time Rudolph had long since been installed). It is also not surprising that the Mass shares some of the fierce visionary intensity of the “Hammerklavier” Sonata. Generally respected, one senses, rather than loved, the Missa Solemnis has found relatively few performances over the years, and has certainly not been a popular text for critical exegesis.
Donald Tovey's essay on the Mass contains much that is illuminating, as usual, and one point he makes stands out as criticism of the highest order. Beethoven, says Tovey, studied the Mass text thoroughly and made his own personal decisions about the doctrinal aspects he would articulate. “First then, he brings out an overwhelming and overwhelmed sense of the Divine glory, with which he invariably and immediately contrasts the nothingness of man.” Reading this, one immediately thinks of places in the text which refer to majestic qualities and actions of the Godhead, and which Beethoven has set to music of an all-but-apocalyptic vehemence. One does not forget such places. Pitched very high in the voices, sung at a merciless fortissimo, supported by massive instrumental forces and often by drastic harmonies, they define an essential component of strain and extremity in Beethoven's conception.
The most famous of these places is the section in the Credo starting at “Credo in Spiritum Sanctum,” during which several important doctrinal items in the Christian's list of beliefs, running to 37 words, are rushed through in 22 bars of Allegro ma non troppo. Most of the words are sung only once, by a single voice in the choir. Meanwhile the other voices exclaim “Credo, credo” again and again. Sheer intensity of belief, Beethoven seems to be saying, outweighs belief in any particular proposition.
In contrast, the final five words of the Credo, “Et vitam venturi saeculi, Amen” are extended into an immense fugue lasting for five minutes. It is especially at the ends of the big movements (past the Kyrie) that Beethoven gives his expansive tendencies their head. He may have felt that the many highly disruptive gestures earlier in the Credo required a broad stretch of fugal stability at the end. The same could be true of the equally long fugue at the end of the Gloria, “In gloria Dei Patris, Amen.”
- Joseph Kerman
Credo in unum Deum, Pattern omnipotentem, factorem coeli e terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Credo (Et) in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo veto, Genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Out propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: Et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis; sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum vcnturus est cum gloria, judicare vivos et mottoes: cuius regni non erit finis. Credo (Et) in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum, et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Credo (Et) in unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam Ecciesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma, in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.
I believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible, I believe (And) in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, born of the Father before all ages; God of God, light of light, true God of true God; begotten not made; consubstantial with the Father; by Whom all things were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven; and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost, of the Virgin Mary; and was made man. He was crucified also for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was buried. And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven. He sitteth at the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead; and His Kingdom shall have no end. I believe (And) in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified; Who spoke by the Prophets. I believe (And) in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the remission of sins. And I await the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.